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Close to the border to East Prussia some Salzburgers passed Marienburg Castle (Malbork Zamek), the former headquarters of the Teutonic Knights. World´s largest brick castle is located close to the Nogat River and was the pride of the German settlers in this region.

Left: The hanseatic houses at Elbing (Elblag). The city was a rival to neighbouring Danzig for a long time but could never reach its importance, though. To the right: The Market Gate, erected in 1319.

Left: Frauenburg, East Prussia (Frombork) north of Elbing. One of the destinations of the Salzburger Exulanten. The famous scientist Niclas Copernicus is buried here, whose uncle was the local Bishop. To the right: The “Frische Haff” near Tolkemit (Tolkmicko) close to the Baltic Sea. On the horizon one can see the dunes of the “Frische Nehrung”. Further to the right is the Polish/Russian border today that cuts former East Prussia into two halfs between Poland and Russia.

A typical road through East Prussia, the “land of unpassable woods”. Seen between Preussisch Holland (Paslek) and Heilsberg (Lidzbark Warminski). The photo to the right shows the Masurian lakes.

Allenstein (Olsztyn) is now in Poland but belonged to East Prussia for many centuries. Above is the city´s cathedral and the old castle of the Teutonic Order.

Left: Neidenburg (Nidzica) was also founded by the Teutonic Knights. Right: The old chapel of the Teutonic Order comemorates the loss of 18.000 soldiers at the famous Battle of Tannenberg (Grunwald) in 1410. After the Teutonic Order became Protestant and lost its influence in the heart of East Prussia, the chapel was destroyed.


The map above shows today´s borderline between the Polish part of East Prussia in the south and the Russian territory in the north. The line in the very northern section is the Memelland area in what was then northern “Prussian Lithuania”. This area nowadays is shared between Russia and Lithuania. Prussian-Lithuania was the area which King Frederick William I. had assigned as new home to the Salzburgers with Gumbinnen as its geographical center. Some regions of southwestern East Prussia (which are part of above map) belonged to German West Prussia until 1918. After West Prussia was given to the newly formed state of Poland, the rest of East Prussia remained German until 1945.

Left: Today´s city of Gumbinnen (Gusew) is already on Russian territory. Right:The cathedral at Koenigsberg (Kaliningrad) was renovated not long ago.

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